Essays On The Second Industrial Revolution

The Second Industrial Revolution Essay

By the time of the Civil War, the technologies upon which the First Industrial Revolution was based were established in the United States. In the years following the war, the nation's industrial energies were focused on completing the railroad and telegraph networks of the North, rebuilding those of the South, and expanding those of the West. Once the devastating depression of the 1870’s depleted, the stage was set for the Second Industrial Revolution.

New inventions came about to ease the production of goods that were being supplied. The creation of factories emerged by retailers who were struggling to meet the requirements of the masses surrounding them. The formation of power driven machinery was initiated in order to compete with others. These machines began to replace skilled craftspeople. Since this involved less people, labor costs were reduced, as well as the prices for the goods that were produced. Depending on the country’s needs, the machinery produced products by the thousands or even millions.

The impact of these new inventions caused a dramatic drop of the life expectancy of the average citizen. Because most families were rather poor, everyone had to work. Since there were no child labor laws, children were sent to work in coal mines, and silk mills. Women also had to work, mostly in textiles factories or as seamstresses. Women and children were expected to work up to sixteen hours a day, doing labor that could cause serious injury, such as carrying extremely heavy loads. They were paid very low wages for their work. Women were paid around five shillings per week, and children were paid about one. Prior to the industrialization, women were never considered as an economic working force, but instead to take care of the household. During the industrialization, women had a big impact on the future but it was not easy for them, since it was often difficult to achieve their goals for equality in the male dominated society. Upon entering World War I, women hoped for more rights. They also had hopes of becoming equal to the white male. Without women, the Industrial Revolution would have never come about. Women make up roughly fifty percent of the world’s population; therefore a revolution without women would have been impossible since they were an important work force, such as in cotton factories or other textile manufacturing markets. For the first time as a work force, and a strong political voice, without women the industrial revolution would have failed.

In the late 19’th century, many new immigrants came to America with hopes to escape religious and political persecution, to find better employment opportunities, for more freedoms, and a chance to start over again. The immigrant work force grew fast as the demand for factory labor grew. These immigrants were important to industrialization in the United States. They were willing to work in unsanitary work conditions for little pay. Because of this, American industries were able...

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The Second Industrial Revolution

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The Second Industrial Revolution brought unity and prosperity to the once uneconomical Europe. Products such as railroads, coal, iron, and textiles, as well as the discovery of electricity, and use of chemicals, petroleum, and steel, are all contributes to what is referred to as the Second Industrial Revolution. These products brought improvement and advancement to all social classes.
     The Middle Class was profited greatly due to the Revolution. Some were even starting to merge with upper class due to the wealth of entrepreneurs, marriages of upper middle class to upper class, and such. Schools also helped them find unity where upper middle class sons were allowed to study with elite upper class.
     Steel being substituted for iron was one of the original changes made during the Second Industrial revolution. This change made smaller and faster engines and better railways and ships. The new transportation advances such as the construction of many new rail lines (due to the substitution of iron for steel) made it possible for all social classes to travel and be tourist. It was very popular on weekends for working and middle class to travel to amusement parks, to the beach, dancehalls, or sport stadiums, where they could watch a newly organized professional sport.
     Discoveries in mmedicine and the environment improved nutrition as well as reduced unsanitary urban environments which carried diseases, poor water quality, and unproper removals of sewage. Urbanization is the term used to described the boom in population during this time in urban areas. Sanitary reforms stepped up during this time and developed ways to sanitize the most filthy parts of Europe.

     Many women struggled with the “Woman question” during this time.

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Should a woman stay home and do the only considered honorable job of being a wife and mother or should she apply herself in the workforce and bring additional income to her family. Women could only work low paying “white collar jobs” such as being a secretary; yet these jobs gave women a sense of importance & worth.
     



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