ON SUNDAY February 17th Kosovo declared that it had become the seventh state to emerge from the wreckage of the former Yugoslavia. According to a plan worked out by Kosovo's leaders with foreign counterparts, recognition of the new country is likely to follow from Monday onwards, by America, many European Union countries and others.
Tens of thousands of people packed the centre of Pristina, Kosovo's capital, to celebrate. Posters were plastered across the city, thanking America, Britain and the EU for their support.
Technically Kosovo was a province of Serbia, although its jurisdiction passed to the UN in 1999. Serbia, strongly supported by Russia has said that Kosovo's independence is an illegal act of secession and it will not recognise it. Serbia is set to lower, but not break, diplomatic relations with any state that recognises Kosovo.
Of Kosovo's 2m people some 90% are ethnic Albanians who have long demanded independence. There are believed to be fewer than 130,000 Serbs in Kosovo today. About half live in a compact territory in the north, the rest in enclaves scattered across the rest of the territory.
This is the second time Kosovo has declared independence. The first time in 1991, it was recognised by no one except Albania. This time it will be different, but still Kosovo will not become a state equal with all others. Russia will block its membership of the UN and all other international bodies where it has a veto. A big EU mission is beginning to deploy, with a mandate to keep control of police and justice in the territory. Another part of the mission is supposed to make sure that Kosovo lives up to various standards its leaders have committed themselves to.
The risk is that Kosovo becomes dependent on these missions and thus simply an EU protectorate, its leaders shoving responsibility for difficult issues on to foreigners all too willing to rule. Given Serbia's hostility to Kosovo's independence, heavy reliance on foreigners will be a necessity in any case. Today Kosovo's security is assured by some 17,000 NATO-led troops. They will remain for years, perhaps decades, to come.
One of the biggest problems now is going to be dealing with Kosovo's Serbian minority which rejects independence—the leadership of Serbia tell them to ignore independence. They will probably do so. In May, Serbia will vote in local elections. This will be a big test. What would, or could, Kosovo's authorities do when Serbs hold these polls in other parts of Kosovo? Much will become clear in the next few days. Some of Kosovo's power comes from Serbia. Will that be cut? Will Serbia close the border to Kosovo-Albanians and anyone doing business with them?
On Friday Hashim Thaci, Kosovo's prime minister, addressed journalists saying that all would be done to look after and protect minorities in Kosovo. It was a moment pregnant with symbolism. Since no one had bothered to provide a translation none of the now angry Serbian journalists had a clue what he was saying. For too long Serbs and Albanians have been talking at each other not to each other. In the short term this is bound to get worse. Serbia has also, for now, angrily opted to put aside its efforts to join the EU.
Once the parties end difficult problems must be tackled. Serbs in the north will protest against independence. Kosovo's weak economy will still be weak. Kosovo's neighbours, Macedonia and Montenegro are also bracing for trouble, worried that a vengeful Serbia will take harsh measures against them if they recognise the new state.
For years diplomats dealing with Kosovo have tried to find a way to achieve what was called “final status”. Today most Albanians are delirious, but it is unclear whether they have understood that what is happening now is not final, but rather just the end of a chapter. “We had hoped we'd be finishing the book by now,” says one diplomatic source ruefully. Ylber Hysa, a Kosovo Albanian analyst, says that as far as he is concerned the important thing is not so much independence as getting "Serbia out."
Kosovo, self-declared independent country in the Balkans region of Europe. Although the United States and most members of the European Union (EU) recognized Kosovo’s declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008, Serbia, Russia, and a significant number of other countries—including several EU members—did not. Given this lack of international consensus, Kosovo was not immediately admitted to the United Nations (UN). In 2010 the International Court of Justice ruled that Kosovo’s declaration of independence did not violate international law, but Serbia rejected that decision.
The name Kosovo is derived from a Serbian place-name meaning “field of blackbirds.” After serving as the centre of a medieval Serbian empire, Kosovo was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from the mid-15th to the early 20th century, a period when Islam grew in importance and the population of Albanian speakers in the region increased. In the early 20th century Kosovo was incorporated into Serbia (later part of Yugoslavia). By the second half of the century, the largely Muslim ethnic Albanians outnumbered the predominantly Eastern Orthodox Serbs in Kosovo, and interethnic tensions frequently roiled the province.
In 1998 an ethnic Albanian-led secessionist rebellion escalated into an international crisis (seeKosovo conflict), which culminated in 1999 in an air bombardment of Yugoslavia—by then a rump of the former federal state, comprising only Serbia and Montenegro—by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Following the restoration of peace, Kosovo was administered by the UN Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo. Throughout this period—in the course of which Yugoslavia changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro (2003) and then separated into those independent states (2006)—Serbia continued to consider Kosovo part of its territory. Nevertheless, under UN supervision, Kosovo developed the structures of an independent country, and in February 2008 it formally declared independence from Serbia. An EU mission charged with overseeing police, judicial, and customs activities largely replaced the UN presence later that year. Pristina (Albanian: Prishtinë; Serbian: Priština) is the capital and largest city.
A landlocked country, Kosovo is bordered by Serbia to the north and east, Macedonia to the south, Albania to the west, and Montenegro to the northwest. Kosovo, about the same size as Jamaica or Lebanon, is the smallest country in the Balkans.
Relief, drainage, and soils
The borders of Kosovo are largely mountainous, characterized by sharp peaks and narrow valleys. The Sharr (Serbian: Šar) Mountains lie along the southern border with Macedonia, while the Kopaonik Mountains are situated along the northeastern border with Serbia. The highest point is Mount Gjeravica (Ðeravica), at 8,714 feet (2,656 metres), on the western border with Albania. The interior terrain comprises high plains and rolling hills; about three-fourths of the country lies between about 1,600 and 5,000 feet (500 and 1,500 metres) above sea level. Limestone caves are found in several parts of the country.
A range of hills running north-south through central Kosovo separates the Kosovo Plain in the east from the Dukagjin (Metohija) Plain in the west. These plains constitute the country’s two main basins. The Kosovo Plain is drained by the northward-flowing Sitnicë (Sitnica) River, a tributary of the Ibër (Ibar) River. The Dukagjin Plain is drained by the southward-flowing Drini i Bardhë, or White Drin (Beli Drim). The soils of the plains are among the most fertile in the Balkans and support the cultivation of grains, fruits, and vegetables.
In general, Kosovo has a moderate continental climate, although the proximity of the Mediterranean Sea has a tempering effect, especially in the southwest. Summers are warm, with average high temperatures reaching the low 80s F (upper 20s C); average highs during the winter months are in the low 40s F (about 5 °C). The country receives more than 25 inches (650 mm) of precipitation annually, with significant snowfall occurring in the winter. Mountainous areas experience both colder temperatures and greater precipitation.
Plant and animal life
Despite its small area, Kosovo boasts a rich assortment of plant species, including about a dozen that are found only in Kosovo. Forests cover about two-fifths of the land, with oak trees predominating in lower elevations and pines growing in the mountains. Animal life is relatively diverse as well. Brown bears, Eurasian lynx, wildcats, gray wolves, foxes, chamois (a goatlike animal), roe deer, and red deer are among the mammals that inhabit the mountainous border regions. More than 200 species of birds live in Kosovo or migrate there seasonally. Among them are the Old World blackbirds for which Kosovo Polje (“Field of the Blackbirds”), site of the 1389 Battle of Kosovo, was named.
In the second half of the 20th century, as a result of Serbian out-migration and higher Albanian birth rates, there was a dramatic shift in the ethnic composition of Kosovo. The Albanian share of the population rose from about half in 1946 to about four-fifths by the 1990s. Meanwhile, the proportion of Serbs fell to less than one-fifth. After the Kosovo conflict of 1998–99, additional Serbs emigrated. Thus, in the early 21st century, the population makeup was approximately nine-tenths Albanian and less than one-tenth Serb, with the remainder comprising Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), traditionally itinerant peoples (i.e., Roma and two other groups, Ashkali and Egyptians [also called Balkan Egyptians], that are commonly classified as Roma but regard themselves as distinct), Turks, Gorani (a Muslim South Slavic people), Croats, and Montenegrins. The Serbs are concentrated in northern Kosovo, particularly in Mitrovicë (Mitrovica), as well as around Shtërpcë (Štrpce), on the Macedonian border.
Albanian and Serbian are the official languages of Kosovo. According to the 2008 constitution, Turkish, Bosnian, and Romany also have official status in relevant municipalities. The Albanian spoken in Kosovo is a subvariety of the Gheg dialect; it is commonly known as kosovarce. Standard literary Albanian is used in written communication and in the broadcast media. Serbo-Croatian, also known as Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), is the language spoken by Serbs, Bosniaks, Croats, and Montenegrins. However, speakers of BCS tend to refer to their own language as Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian, or Montenegrin, depending on their ethnicity, and consider it to be distinct from the other groups’ languages, despite mutual intelligibility. The Roma speak Serbian or Romany, while the Ashkali and the Egyptians speak Albanian. Turkish is spoken by the Turks as well as by some Albanians. The Gorani people speak their own South Slavic dialect, akin to BCS and Macedonian.
Kosovo does not have an official religion. More than nine-tenths of the people, including most Albanians, are Muslim. A significant proportion of Muslims are only nominally so; many do not regularly attend mosque services, although fasting for Ramadan is widely practiced. Most of the Serbs and some Roma are Eastern Orthodox. A small minority of the population, consisting mainly of Albanians and Croats, are Roman Catholic.
Despite early competition with Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy became the predominant faith in Kosovo in the Middle Ages, when the region was the centre of a Serbian empire. In the 13th century Peć (Albanian: Pejë) was established as a Serbian Orthodox archbishopric, and in the 14th century it was raised to the status of autonomous patriarchate. This historical importance helps to explain the special role that Kosovo plays in Serbian tradition. Islam arrived with the conquering Ottoman Turks, who, from the mid-15th century, controlled the region for more than four centuries. Although much of the population eventually became Muslim, the region retained its Orthodox heritage, and the patriarchate was restored from 1557 to 1766. The lack of religious tension during much of the Ottoman period may be explained in part by the concessions offered to Muslim converts and in part by the attitude of many peasants, who welcomed diverse forms of religious ritual as means to ward off evil. Thus, converted Muslims often maintained certain Christian practices, leading to religious syncretism.
Kosovo is more densely populated than its neighbours. More than half the population lives in rural areas, mainly in small villages in the central plains and on the lower slopes of the mountains. Some rural Kosovars practice transhumance—the seasonal movement of livestock between low and high altitudes—and spend the summers in huts in mountain pastures. The principal cities are the capital, Pristina (Albanian: Prishtinë; Serbian: Priština), and Prizren, Ferizaj (Uroševac), Mitrovicë (Mitrovica), Gjakovë (Ðakovica), Pejë (Peć), and Gjilan (Gnjilane). There was a considerable shift in settlement throughout Kosovo after the 1998–99 conflict, when a substantial percentage of homes were damaged or destroyed.
The population is fairly young: roughly one-quarter of Kosovars are under age 15, and less than one-tenth are over 65. In the early 21st century it was estimated that about a half million Kosovars lived abroad, notably in Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia, and North America. A significant portion of emigrants were Serbs, many of whom left Kosovo for Serbia.
Kosovo has long been one of the poorest, least-developed regions of the Balkans. During the second half of the 20th century, when Kosovo was a part of the republic of Serbia, a number of the Yugoslav republics objected to the federal economic support given to Kosovo. This controversy ultimately contributed to the dissolution of Yugoslavia in 1991. Following the 1998–99 conflict, Kosovo’s economy was boosted by the large installation of international administrators. In addition, the use of the euro—which Kosovo unofficially adopted in 2002 and continued to use after declaring independence in 2008—helped to bridle inflation. Although the postindependence government worked to strengthen the market economy, particularly by privatizing state-controlled businesses, Kosovo continued to rely heavily on remittances from Kosovars working abroad as well as on international aid. Moreover, the economy has been highly susceptible to fluctuations in prices for imported commodities—especially food and fuel—on which Kosovo remains dependent. Unemployment and poverty are still intractable problems. In the years immediately following independence, about two-fifths of the labour force was unemployed, with rural areas especially affected, and about one-third of Kosovo’s citizens lived below the poverty line. This rampant poverty and unemployment fostered a significant black market.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
About half of Kosovo’s area is agricultural land, worked mostly in family plots for subsistence. Kosovo is not self-sufficient in food production, however. Before 1999 agriculture accounted for one-third of the gross domestic product (GDP). A decade later it accounted for just over one-tenth. About half the farmland is used for growing grains, mainly wheat and corn (maize), as well as potatoes, berries, and peppers. Pastures and meadows constitute most of the remainder. The high cost of agricultural machinery, seeds, and fertilizers has inhibited the increase of agricultural production. Industrial pollution of soil and water also poses a serious problem in many areas. Most of the timber harvested is used for fuel. Fisheries are most developed in western Kosovo, notably in Istog (Istok).
Resources and power
Kosovo has been a mining centre since pre-Roman times, but today mining constitutes only a tiny portion of the GDP. Mineral resources include ferronickel, nonferrous metals, and asphalt. There are also significant, nearly unexploited reserves of lignite.
Kosovo imports much of its electricity. Although the country has several power plants, domestic production has been hampered by outdated technology and insufficient investment. Some municipalities employ fuel oil–based district heating, whereby a central plant distributes heat to numerous buildings.
Manufacturing and other secondary industries account for roughly one-fifth of the GDP. Kosovo produces construction materials, food and beverages, leather, machinery, and appliances. Metal processing is important as well. Kosovo has a long tradition of handicraft production, especially in and around Prizren, Pejë (Peć), and Gjakovë (Ðakovica). Notable handicrafts include silver filigree, woodwork (especially carved doors and ceilings), wool textiles and carpets, and copper and clay household goods.
Prior to independence the Yugoslav or Serbian dinar was the official currency. Until 2002 the deutsche mark also was used—unofficially, as many Kosovars working in western Europe sent money back home to support their families. In 2002, while still a part of Serbia, Kosovo unofficially began using the euro. The euro became the official currency in 2008, although the Serbian dinar remains in use among Serbs. In 2009 Kosovo joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The independent Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo oversees the financial system.
In the opening decade of the 21st century, Kosovo’s trade deficit grew substantially. The deficit remained large after independence, as Kosovo had to import much of its food, fuel, and machinery—mostly from Macedonia, Serbia, Germany, Turkey, and China. Kosovo’s exports, predominantly scrap metal, went mainly to Italy, India, Albania, and Macedonia. Kosovo became a party to the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) in 2006; however, Serbia, also a CEFTA member, refused to recognize Kosovo as an independent trading partner.
The service sector accounts for the majority of the GDP. Public administration, financial services, and domestic trade are major components of this sector. Prior to the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, tourism in Kosovo centred on the medieval Serbian Orthodox monasteries at Deçan (Dečani), Pejë (Peć), and Pristina. The building of a tourist industry has been a priority of the postindependence government.
Labour and taxation
The labour force is concentrated in the service sector, particularly in public services. Small and family-owned businesses are also prevalent. The remainder of the employed population works mainly in agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and mining.
The postindependence government implemented tax laws aimed at strengthening the market economy and encouraging foreign investment. Individual and corporate income taxes were lowered, and a value-added tax and other excises were raised.
Transportation and telecommunications
The needs of the UN mission in Kosovo led to improvement of Kosovo’s road system following the 1998–99 conflict. Good roads now connect all the major cities. In addition, a highway linking Kosovo with the Adriatic Sea, via Albania, opened in 2010. Many minor village roads remain unpaved, however. Bus and public minivan services are widespread. Although the first railway line through Kosovo was opened in 1874, the rail network is relatively limited. Rail lines connect Pejë (Peć) and Pristina within Kosovo and provide a link between Pristina and Skopje, Maced. An international airport outside Pristina offers frequent connections to Tirana, Alb., and other European airports, notably Vienna, Austria, and Ljubljana, Slvn. The airport in Skopje, which serves a greater number of destinations, is not far from Kosovo’s southern border.
Telecommunications is one of the most important and profitable industries in Kosovo. Internet use, aided by the presence of Internet cafés in urban areas, is widespread. Multiple providers offer mobile phone services to a growing number of subscribers, while a declining number of households use landline telephones. Upon independence, Kosovo was confronted with several problems in the area of communications. For instance, landline calls to Kosovo continued to require Serbia’s country calling code, while various other country codes had to be used for mobile phone calls. In addition, the Kosovar authorities dismantled some cellular towers in Serb enclaves that had been operated by companies in Serbia, leaving many people without service.
Government and society
In 1971 amendments to the Yugoslav constitution granted Serbia’s two autonomous provinces, Kosovo and Vojvodina, nearly equal status with the six republics of Yugoslavia. In 1974 a new Yugoslav constitution enshrined the provinces’ equal status and gave them the right to issue their own constitutions. However, following the rise to power of Slobodan Milošević (president of Serbia from 1989), the government in Belgrade revoked the provinces’ autonomy and retook political control. Kosovo thus was administered by Serbia until the conflict of 1998–99, after which Serbian and Yugoslav forces withdrew and the UN oversaw the installment of an interim administration. Under the guidance of the UN mission, Kosovar Albanians established central and municipal government institutions, while the UN worked to resolve Kosovo’s future status. Multilateral talks on the subject led to a plan—developed by UN special envoy Martti Ahtisaari and supported by Kosovar Albanians—whereby Kosovo would eventually gain independence. But because Serbia strongly opposed the idea of Kosovar independence, Russia blocked UN approval of the Ahtisaari Plan in 2007. Further talks failed to produce any agreement, and on Feb. 17, 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence. That April a Kosovar assembly approved a constitution, which took effect on June 15, 2008.
Although the constitution granted local self-government to Kosovo’s Serb communities and offered special protection for Serb cultural and religious sites, many Serbs rejected both the declaration of independence and the new government. Numerous Serbs boycotted subsequent elections, preferring to support the parallel administrative structures organized by Serb groups and backed by Belgrade—structures that the Kosovar government deemed illegal.
According to the 2008 constitution, the executive branch of government is led by a president (head of state) and a prime minister (head of government). The president is elected by the Assembly of Kosovo for a five-year term, with the right to be reelected to one additional term. The president appoints the prime minister upon a recommendation by the majority party or coalition in the Assembly. The Assembly is a unicameral legislature composed of 120 deputies directly elected by voters for four-year terms. Of the 120 seats in the Assembly, 100 are distributed on the basis of proportional representation, at least 10 are guaranteed for Kosovar Serbs, and 10 are reserved for members of the Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim), Turkish, Roma, Ashkali, Egyptian, and Gorani communities.
Municipalities are the basic units of local government. Each municipality is administered by a mayor and a municipal assembly, elected every four years by proportional representation. Municipalities have the right to associate with each other and to participate in the selection of local police commanders. Some municipalities with predominantly Serb populations have special rights, such as the operation of a secondary health system, oversight of postsecondary education, and management of cultural and religious sites.
The Supreme Court of Kosovo is the highest judicial authority for all matters except constitutional questions, which are decided by the Constitutional Court. For the Supreme Court and lower courts of appeal, at least 15 percent of the judges must hail from minority communities. An independent judicial council ensures the impartiality of the judicial system. The judicial council also recommends candidates for the judiciary to the president of Kosovo, who makes the appointments.
Suffrage is universal from age 18. Kosovo’s Central Election Commission oversees elections. Postindependence political parties are split largely along ethnic lines. The two main Kosovar Albanian parties, the Democratic League of Kosovo (Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës; LDK) and the Democratic Party of Kosovo (Partia Demokratike e Kosovës; PDK), formed independent Kosovo’s first coalition government, with Hashim Thaçi of the PDK as prime minister and Fatmir Sejdiu of the LDK as president. The LDK was organized as a response to Kosovo’s loss of autonomy in 1989. Headed by the Kosovar Albanian nationalist writer Ibrahim Rugova, the LDK in 1992 declared the creation of the Republic of Kosovo, which remained internationally unrecognized. After the 1998–99 conflict, the LDK was challenged by the newly formed PDK, led by Thaçi—a former leader of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), a Kosovar Albanian guerrilla organization. There are a number of smaller Albanian parties, as well as several parties that represent the Serb, Bosniak, Roma, Turkish, and other communities.
At the end of the conflict of 1998–99, the KLA agreed to demilitarize. Under the subsequent UN administration, many KLA members joined the Kosovo Protection Corps, a civilian emergency force. In 2009 the corps was replaced by the Kosovo Security Force, a multiethnic, civilian-controlled, lightly armed military organization. Law enforcement is the responsibility of the multiethnic Kosovo Police Service. A contingent of officials from the European Union monitored and temporarily assisted with policing in postindependence Kosovo.
Health and welfare
A public system provides subsidized health care to citizens. However, many public clinics suffer from limited or poorly maintained equipment and insufficient staff. More costly private clinics have increased in number. Life expectancy for men is about 70 years, which is just under the European average. For women in Kosovo, life expectancy is slightly higher but remains well below the European average of nearly 80.
In the postindependence era many public services in addition to health care—e.g., electricity, water supply, waste collection, and sewage disposal—required significant improvement. Water quality is poor in many urban areas, and most rural areas are not connected to any public water system.
Traditional homes in Kosovo were built to house large extended families. Albanians built houses of stone, known as kullas, that often featured an inner courtyard protected from outside view. Following the massive destruction that occurred during the 1998–99 conflict, more than 50,000 houses had to be rebuilt. Many of these newer buildings are taller than the traditional structures of the countryside, and they are still intended to house extended families.
A small number of multiethnic schools were established after the 1998–99 conflict, but ethnic tensions jeopardized their success. At the primary and secondary levels, most children attend separate Albanian or Serb schools. The language divide between these groups is reinforced by vastly different lessons on geography and history. Due to a dearth of classrooms and qualified teachers, students in some schools attend one of several shifts each day. The University of Pristina, founded in 1970, is the major public university in Kosovo. It is now primarily an Albanian-language institution that also serves Albanian populations in Serbia, Macedonia, and Montenegro. The Serb component of the university relocated to Mitrovicë (Mitrovica) in the early 21st century; there it became known as the University of Mitrovica, although many Serbs continue to refer to it as the University of Pristina. The English-language American University in Kosovo is a private postsecondary institution that was founded in 2003. Although the literacy rate for both men and women is above 90 percent, it lags behind the nearly universal literacy predominant in the rest of Europe.