Ielts Writing Task 1 Process Diagram Essays

Introduction

In Part 1 of the IELTS Writing test you might be asked to describe a process. IELTS Task 1 process questions are not as common as charts or graphs, but they do come up occasionally. They are much easier to answer than the other Task 1 questions, but many people do not prepare for them at all. This is a big risk to take because it does not take long to familiarise yourself with these questions and learn how to answer the properly.

This post will show you:

  • the different types of process question
  • a 5 step plan for answering any process question
  • how to write an introduction
  • how to pick out the main features and write an overview
  • how to write about each stage in detail
  • how to sequence your language

Different Types of Process Question

There are generally two different types of process question: natural and man-made.

Natural processes include things like the life cycle of a butterfly or frog, pregnancy, the water cycle or how cows produce milk.

Below is the process is photosynthesis:

You might also be asked to describe a man-made process like how coffee, tea, beer or wine are made, how cement or bricks are produced or how an ATM or the internet works. Below is the man-made process of nuclear power generation:

It does not matter if it is man-made or a natural process. The same skills and system we use to answer process questions is the same for both.

Writing Task 1 Process Questions: 5 Step Plan

To understand the task and quickly make a plan to answer process questions you should follow the 7 steps below:

  1. Understand the process. Find the start and the end of the process. Count how many stages there are and understand what each stage does and the relationship it has with the stage before and after it.
  2. Paraphrase the question.
  3. Describe what is happening generally in 2 sentences. This is your overview paragraph and I will show you how to write this in more detail below.
  4. Divide the process in two and write two separate paragraphs detailing each stage of the process.
  5. Check your work.

Understand the Process

One of the most challenging things about these questions is having to write about something you have never seen or heard of before.

Don’t worry, try to remember two things.

First, the examiner knows that you have probably never seen this process before and you have only 20 minutes to write about it. They do not expect a perfect answer. Just pick out the main features and report them accurately.

Second, you can quickly understand any process by asking yourself these questions:

  1. Where does the process start and where does it end?
  2. How many stages are there?
  3. Is it a man-made process or natural process?
  4. Is it a cyclical (in a circle) or linear (one start point and one end point) process?
  5. Are there any materials that need to be added to the process?
  6. What is produced?
  7. What does each stage of the process do?
  8. What are the relationships between each stage?

The processes you will be asked to write about in the IELTS test will not be very complicated and you should be able to easily answer all of the questions above. When you do this you will completely understand what is happening and you will be able to start writing your answer.

Paraphrase the Question

Every process question follows the same format. First it tells you some general information about the process and then it instructs you to ‘Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features.’

For example, the question above states:

The diagram below shows the process of photosynthesis. (General information)

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features. (Instructions)

The first thing we need to do in every question is to paraphrase the general information. Paraphrasing is one of the most important IELTS skills to master. We paraphrase a sentence by rewriting it so that the words are different but the meaning stays the same. There are a few different ways we can do this but the easiest way is to use synonyms and change the word order of the sentence. Synonyms are different words that have the same meaning, for example, woman and female.

Let’s look at the questions above and paraphrase them.

 

Question 1: The diagram below shows the process of photosynthesis.

Paraphrased: The illustration demonstrates how plants produce energy from sunlight.

 

Question 2: The diagram below shows how electricity is produced in a nuclear power station.

Paraphrased: The illustration below shows the process of how nuclear power plants make electricity.

 

Every time you see an Academic Task 1 question rewrite the question and this should be your first paragraph. We can no move on and write our next paragraph; the overview.

Overview of Process

The overview is probably the most important paragraph in the whole essay. If you do not write an overview it is extremely difficult to get a high mark in IELTS Task 1, however, if you learn how to write a good one, you are far more likely to get the score you deserve.

Overviews for process questions can be done quite easily by asking yourself a few questions. The answers to these questions will allow you to form 2 overview sentences.

  1. Is it a man-made or natural process?
  2. How many stages are there?
  3. What is produced?
  4. Where does it start and where does it end?
  5. Is it cyclical or linear?
  6. Are any materials added?

You might not be able to answer all of these for each process question, but you will always be able to answer enough of them to be be able to write a good overview.

Let’s look at one of the previous examples:

  1. Is it a man-made or natural process? Natural 
  2. How many stages are there? Five 
  3. What is produced? Sugar, oxygen and starch. 
  4. Where does it start and where does it end? Starts with sun and end with production sugar, oxygen and starch. 
  5. Is it cyclical or linear? Linear. 
  6. Are any materials added? Sunlight, CO2 and water. 

We can then use this information to make two sentences:

Photosynthesis is a natural linear process that starts with sunshine and carbon dioxide being absorbed and ends with the production of sugar, oxygen and starch. There are five main stages to this process and it allows plants to convert light energy to chemical energy in the form of sugar. 

Let’s look at the other example:

  1. Is it a man-made or natural process? Man-made
  2. How many stages are there? Six
  3. What is produced? Electricity
  4. Where does it start and where does it end? Starts with uranium fuel and ends with electricity being sent to the grid.
  5. Is it cyclical or linear? Linear
  6. Are any materials added? Water and uranium

This is a man-made linear process that starts with the uranium fuel and water creating steam and ends with electricity being sent to the grid. There are 6 main stages including steam production, turbines driving a generator and a transformer creating electricity. 

This system can be used for any process question and allows you to produce clear overviews each time. We can now move on to detailing each stage of the process in our next paragraphs.

Detail Each Stage of the Process

Now that we have paraphrased the question and provided an overview we need to tell the examiner about each stage in more detail.

You can:

  • say what each stage does
  • what it produces
  • if any materials are added
  • and/or discuss the relationship with the previous or subsequent stages.

Sequencing the Process

Try to sequence your language and make your details easier to read by using language like:

  • Firstly
  • First of all
  • Secondly
  • After that
  • From this
  • Where
  • Following that
  • Subsequently
  • Before that
  • In turn
  • Then

Make sure you know the meaning and grammar of the words and phrases above before you use them. Do not use them if you are not 100% sure about how they should be used in a sentence.

Examples

Let’s detail each stage for the first process:

First of all, chlorophyll allows the plant to take in sunlight along the green spectrum and the leaves also absorb carbon dioxide through openings in their surface. At the same time, water is sucked up through the roots and this is combined with CO2 and the sun’s rays to produce sugar that can be utilised by the plant for food.

Oxygen and water are the byproducts of this chemical reaction and it is extracted through a process called transpiration. Water evaporates from the leaves and O2 is released. Any extra sugar is deposited in the roots as starch.

You will notice that there are 2 separate paragraphs. I advise students to try and split the process in two and then write two paragraphs. Separating the process into 2 parts makes it easier to understand and easier to write about. Not all processes have two distinct parts but most of the IELTS questions I have seen can be treated in this way.

We will now detail each stage of the next question:

First of all, uranium fuel creates heat in the steam generator and this water vapor flows through pipes to a turbine. The steam causes the turbine to spin and in turn powers a generator which subsequently creates electricity.

After that, electricity from the generator is transferred to a transformer where the electric can be changed to a form that is ready to be sent to the grid to power homes and industry. Hot water makes its way to a cooling tower, condenses and then returns to the turbine or can flow into the cold water source.

Check Your Essay

You should try to leave 3-4 minutes at the end to check and improve your work. Many students do not do this because they feel they do not have enough time, however, it is better to try and get everything done in 15 minutes and then check and refine your work, than do everything in 20 minutes.

Things that you should check are:

  1. Are there any spelling or punctuation mistakes?
  2. Are the verbs the correct tense?
  3. Does the process I describe make sense? Does it match the diagram?
  4. Is there any vocabulary repetition we could remove with synonyms?
  5. Do I have 4 clear paragraphs.
  6. Did I write over 150 words?
  7. Have I included things only obvious from the diagram?
  8. Have I included the main features in the overview?

Sample Answers

Look at both of the first drafts and comment below with any improvements you would make.

First Draft of Process Question 1

The illustration demonstrates how plants produce energy from sunlight.

Photosynthesis is a natural linear process that starts with sunshine and carbon dioxide being absorbed and ends with the production of sugar, oxygen and starch. There are five main stages to this process and it allows plants to convert light energy to chemical energy in the form of sugar. 

First of all, chlorophyll allows the plant to take in sunlight along the green spectrum and the leaves also absorb carbon dioxide through openings in their surface. At the same time, water is sucked up through the roots and this is combined with CO2 and the sun’s rays to produce sugar that can be utilised by the plant for food.

Oxygen and water are the byproducts of this chemical reaction and it is extracted through a process called transpiration. Water evaporates from the leaves and O2 is released. Any extra sugar is deposited in the roots as starch.

First Draft of Process Question 2

The illustration below show the process of how nuclear power plants make electricity.

This is a man-made linear process that starts with the uranium fuel and water creating steam and ends with electricity being sent to the grid. There are 6 main stages including steam production, turbines driving a generator and a transformer creating electricity. 

First of all, uranium fuel creates heat in the steam generator and this water vapor flows through pipes to a turbine. The steam causes the turbine to spin and in turn powers a generator which subsequently creates electricity.

After that, electricity from the generator is transferred to a transformer where the electric can be changed to a form that is ready to be sent to the grid to power homes and industry. Hot water makes its way to a cooling tower, condenses and then returns to the turbine or can flow into the cold water source.

Summary

If you have any questions please comments below or join the conversation on our Facebook Page.

The process diagram is in many ways the odd one out in academic task 1 and it requires some different language from the other task types. This lesson shows you some of the skills you need to tackle a process diagram. In it, I talk you through some of the difficulties in describing a process and suggest some basic techniques to help you understand the diagram and write the description. You will also find a sample task and description.

 

 

Reading a process diagram – find the beginnings and ends

The first step in learning to write about a process diagram is to see where the process starts and ends. Sometimes it is evident, frequently it is less so. This is important information as it will help structure your writing. The obvious thing to do is to start at the beginning and carry on until you get to the end.

An example

Where is  the beginning here? The customer pays by credit card (item 1). Where is the end? The merchant receives his money (item 7). We now know part of the structure of our report.

Understand the different stages of the process

The next point is to try and understand how the process works. Typically, there will be some problem in understanding the diagram: it is not always the case that everything is in a natural order. The key is to stop and think and look. This is a visual task and you need to look at all the visual clues. What you are looking for are normally simple things. It is often a good idea to ask yourself the WH questions.

In the diagram above, we see the following details:

  • there are 5 parties involved (the pictures) (WHO)
  • there are 7 stages in the process (the numbers) (HOW MANY)
  • some of the arrows point in two different directions – this needs to be explained
  • item 4 seems to be out of order as it is next to 1

Find a way of organising your description

This is another thinking task. Before you start writing, you want to see if there is some way to organise your report into paragraphs. This is not absolutely essential but it can help the organisation of your writing. In the diagram above, there does seem to be a logical solution, as the process falls in to two parts:

  1. the customer receives his goods
  2. the merchant gets his money

As this is the case, I am going to do the logical thing and divide my description into two main paragraphs. One to describe the authorisation process until the customer gets his/her money and one for the payment process until the merchant is paid.

The introduction and conclusion

This is a key part of your description. What you need to do here is to give the examiner an overall view of the process. Again, you want to ask yourself questions, such as:

  • what happens as a result of this process?
  • is there any change involved?
  • how many stages are there in this process?
  • is there one simple process or are there variations within the process?

Typically, you will either write a longer introduction or add a conclusion. You will not normally need both an extended introduction and conclusion.

The language of the description

Topic language

The process will normally be an everyday event that everyone is familiar with, you should not need any specialised language. Sometimes, as in this example, you will be given some topic vocabulary. If you are, be careful of two points:

  1. try to vary the language if you can, but don’t worry too much if you can’t. It may be that the language you are given is the correct topic language and there are no, or few, variations
  2. don’t copy language incorrectly. If you are given a verb, you may need to change it into a noun

Sequencing language

Some of the most important language you need is vocabulary to say in what order things happen. It is important to have some variation here. Some very basic options are:

  • next
  • then
  • after
  • before
  • once

See this download for an explanation of this language: Sequencing language for process diagrams (45679)

Passives

A key grammatical area is very often the passive. We use this when it is not important who “does” the action. So, if you have a process diagram showing the making of wine, you may choose to write:

the grapes are crushed and their stems are removed

Put simply, we make the passive by taking part of the verb “to be” and adding the 3rd form of the verb.

Sample description with detailed notes

See my sample answer and notes

This diagram shows the different stages in the process of making a purchase with a credit card. We can see that it is a complex transaction with no fewer than five different parties involved and there are seven different steps until the merchant receives payment.

The first step is that the customer offers to pay for the goods by credit card. At that point, the merchant has to request for the payment to be authorised by the credit card organisation, which must also request authorisation in turn from the consumer’s bank. Once that authorisation has been received, the merchant can then release the goods to the customer.

The merchant, however, does not receive the money for the transaction until it has paid a fee to the credit card organisation. After that has been paid, the consumer’s issuing bank will transfer the money for the transaction to the merchant’s own bank, which will then credit the merchant’s bank account with the amount of the purchase less the credit card fee.

notes

introduction

This diagram shows the different stages in the process of making a purchase with a credit card

Simple sentence to start explaining what the diagram shows

We can see that it is a complex transaction with no fewer than five different parties involved and there are seven different steps until the merchant receives payment.

Complete the introduction by giving an overview of the process (how many steps and how many parties)

paragraphs 1 and 2 sequencing language

The first step…At that point….Once that authorisation has been received…in turn…until… After that has been paid

paragraph 1 organisation and vocabulary. 

This follows the authorisation procedure step by step until step 4.

I have not changed the vocabulary much but I have used

  •  “authorised” and not “authorisation”
  • “customer” for “consumer”
  • “goods” for “product”

Paragraph 2 organisation and vocabulary

The key to this paragraph is the first sentence. The merchant receiving his money is step 7. However, because it helps me organise the paragraph, I have used it out of order in the first sentence as the main point.

I have used some “new” vocabulary here:

More help with task 1 writing

How to like it, share it and save it

0 Thoughts to “Ielts Writing Task 1 Process Diagram Essays

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *